(50,000 deaths North Iranian earthquake of 1990.D. (4) Chilean tsunami: May 22, 1960, a strong earthquake of the magnitude.6 on Richter scale, generated Pacific-wide tsunamis and claimed 2,300 human lives in Chile. Typically, in a cyclone the maximum devastative effects are within about 100 km from the centre and on the right of the storm track where all the islands lie. It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone (1999) and the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001). Of this, about 1400 km is supposed to have been ruptured releasing part of the pent-up energy during the last four great earthquakes, leaving a portion of about 300 km to be broken in a future great earthquake. This also happened in the Indus delta area as a large area measuring 80 km in length and 26 km in width was raised by 3 m from the surrounding area. Classification of Earthquakes : It has become apparent after the discussion of the causes of seismic events that there is wide range of variation in the nature and magnitude of earthquakes. Tml (accessed October 13, 2008). Causes of Earthquakes : Earthquakes are caused mainly due to disequilibrium in any part of the crust of the earth.
The damage done by the devastating earthquake included death of 5,000 people, disappearance of 2,000 persons, injuries to 40,000 people, destruction of 4000 buildings, damages to 6,000 buildings, lesser damage to 50,000 buildings etc. The strength of the earthquake was recorded by a scientific instrument called a seismometer, also known as a seismograph. And shook the region for almost a minute. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Belt: The epicentres of this region are along the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the islands near the ridge.
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The total number of fatalities is estimated at around 71000 people. The strongest quake ever recorded had a magnitude.9. The alluvial-filled areas of the flood plains of the Mississippi were fractured at many places which forced ground surface at few places to collapse. Aftershocks occur in the same general region as the main shock and are believed to be the result of minor readjustment of stress at place in the fault zones. But the earthquakes that occur at depths greater than about 100 km typically occur near margins where plates collide. Evidence of this could be seen in the brown and red snow that fell in Hungary and Italy, which was thought to be due to the volcanic ash in the atmosphere. (Magnitude.1-Off the West Coast of Northern Sumatra 2008) The region that breaks on the crust is known as a fault which usually can be seen on the surface of the earth. The main cause of earthquakes is tectonic plate movement. The human-activity-induced hazards like pollution and global warming have already started showing their precursors, giving sufficient time to control and avoid these hazards by long term planning. The extent of damage also depends on how populated and developed an area. The deepest earthquake may have its focus at a depth of even 700 km below the ground surface but some of the major Himalayan earthquakes, such as the Bihar-Nepal earthquake of August 21, 1988, have their focus around 20- 30 km deep. The occurrence of maximum number of earthquakes in this region is due to four ideal conditions (i) Junction of continental and oceanic margins (ii) Zone of young folded mountains (iii) Zone of active volcanoes (iv) Subduction zone of destructive or convergent plate boundaries.